New paper: A deep look into animated eyes

We have been surrounded by animated characters all our lives. Aesthetically, the facial features of these characters tend to be simplified to allow conveying the same basic emotions easily portrayed by human actors. Eyes play a major role in these expressions, which consequently has led artists to design their characters’ eyes as very large and distinctive, but often in ways that are not physiologically accurate and would come at the expense of visual function. We, therefore, hypothesise that the visual function of the majority of cartoon characters is profoundly impaired. In this work, we examine the ocular anatomy of well-known humanoid characters and assess the visual quality as well as potential disabilities that they experience, assuming that they are confined to the same restrictions as normal human physiology.


Rozema JJ, Ni Dhubhghaill S, Zakaria N. A deep look into animated eyes. J Optometry. 2022; (in press)